Tree

tree 概览

mat-tree 提供了一个 Material Design 风格的树,它可用于显示层次型数据。

The mat-tree provides a Material Design styled tree that can be used to display hierarchy data.

树控件基于 CDK 的树控件构建,并使用相似的接口来表示其数据源和模板。只是它们的元素和属性选择器会用 mat- 前缀,而不是 cdk- 前缀。

This tree builds on the foundation of the CDK tree and uses a similar interface for its data source input and template, except that its element and attribute selectors will be prefixed with mat- instead of cdk-.

有两种类型的树:扁平树和嵌套树。这两种树的 DOM 结构是不同的。

There are two types of trees: Flat tree and nested tree. The DOM structures are different for these two types of trees.

在扁平树中,其层次是扁平的,各个节点不会渲染在其它节点内部,而是渲染成一系列兄弟节点。 TreeFlattener 的实例用来根据层次型数据生成扁平的条目列表。 每个节点的级别都是从其 TreeControl 中的 getLevel 方法中读取的;这个级别可用来设置节点样式,使其缩进到适当的级别。

In a flat tree, the hierarchy is flattened; nodes are not rendered inside of each other, but instead are rendered as siblings in sequence. An instance of TreeFlattener is used to generate the flat list of items from hierarchical data. The "level" of each tree node is read through the getLevel method of the TreeControl; this level can be used to style the node such that it is indented to the appropriate level.

<mat-tree>
  <mat-tree-node> parent node </mat-tree-node>
  <mat-tree-node> -- child node1 </mat-tree-node>
  <mat-tree-node> -- child node2 </mat-tree-node>
</mat-tree>
Tree with flat nodes

扁平树通常更容易设置样式和审查元素。它们对各种滚动更加友好 —— 比如无尽滚动或虚拟滚动。

Flat trees are generally easier to style and inspect. They are also more friendly to scrolling variations, such as infinite or virtual scrolling

在嵌套树中,子节点会放在其父节点 DOM 元素的内部。父节点有一个出口(outlet),用来存放其所有子节点。

In Nested tree, children nodes are placed inside their parent node in DOM. The parent node has an outlet to keep all the children nodes.

<mat-tree>
   <mat-nested-tree-node>
     parent node
     <mat-nested-tree-node> -- child node1 </mat-nested-tree-node>
     <mat-nested-tree-node> -- child node2 </mat-nested-tree-node>
   </mat-nested-tree-node>
</mat-tree>
Tree with nested nodes

当以扁平节点的形式难以可视化地表示层次关系时,使用嵌套树会更容易。

Nested trees are easier to work with when hierarchical relationships are visually represented in ways that would be difficult to accomplish with flat nodes.

<mat-tree> 本身只关心树形结构的渲染工作。通过在节点模板内添加行为(比如填充 padding 和切换 toggle),可以在标准树的基础上构建附加功能。 那些能影响渲染数据的交互(比如展开/折叠)应该能通过表格的数据源进行传播。

The <mat-tree> itself only deals with the rendering of a tree structure. Additional features can be built on top of the tree by adding behavior inside node templates (e.g., padding and toggle). Interactions that affect the rendered data (such as expand/collapse) should be propagated through the table's data source.

TreeControl 控制树节点的展开/折叠状态。用户可以通过数控件来递归的展开/折叠树节点。 对于嵌套树的节点,要把一个 getChildren 函数传给 NestedTreeControl,来让它能递归使用。 getChildren 函数可以返回一个指定节点上子节点的 Observable 或其子节点的数组。 对于扁平树的节点,要把 getLevelisExpandable 函数传给 FlatTreeControl,来让它能递归使用。

The TreeControl controls the expand/collapse state of tree nodes. Users can expand/collapse a tree node recursively through tree control. For nested tree node, getChildren function need to pass to the NestedTreeControl to make it work recursively. The getChildren function may return an observable of children for a given node, or an array of children. For flattened tree node, getLevel and isExpandable functions need to pass to the FlatTreeControl to make it work recursively.

可以把 matTreeNodeToggle 添加到树节点模板中,以展开/折叠树节点。此开关可以切换 TreeControl 中的展开/折叠函数,还能把 [matTreeNodeToggleRecursive] 设置为 true 来递归展开/折叠树节点。

A matTreeNodeToggle can be added in the tree node template to expand/collapse the tree node. The toggle toggles the expand/collapse functions in TreeControl and is able to expand/collapse a tree node recursively by setting [matTreeNodeToggleRecursive] to true.

此开关可以放在树节点中的任何地方,并且只能通过点击(click)操作进行切换。

The toggle can be placed anywhere in the tree node, and is only toggled by click action.

matTreeNodePadding 可以放在扁平树的节点模板中,以展示扁平树节点的 level 信息。

The matTreeNodePadding can be placed in a flat tree's node template to display the level information of a flat tree node.

嵌套树不需要进行填充,因为 DOM 中的层次结构就能很容易地加上它。

Nested tree does not need this padding since padding can be easily added to the hierarchy structure in DOM.

没有文本或标签的树应该通过 aria-labelaria-labelledby 给出一个有意义的标签。如果没有指定,则 aria-readonly 会默认为 true

Trees without text or labels should be given a meaningful label via aria-label or aria-labelledby. The aria-readonly defaults to true if it's not set.

树的角色是 tree。 父节点会带有 role="group",而叶节点会带有 role="treeitem"

Tree's role is tree. Parent nodes are given role="group", while leaf nodes are given role="treeitem"

mat-tree 不会自行管理任何焦点/键盘交互。 开发者可以根据需求为应用自行添加焦点/键盘交互。

mat-tree does not manage any focus/keyboard interaction on its own. Users can add desired focus/keyboard interactions in their application.